River Birch (Betula nigra) Interesting Information About Plant: The river birch is by far the most adaptable birch species for North-South landscapes. River birch grows fast, and attains heights of 40 to 70 feet and diameters of 1 to 2 feet. Birch Problems; June 29, 2005: Many growers plant river birch in our area to avoid bronze birch borer problems seen on European white birch. However, it is not very flood-tolerant and may suffer during extended inundation. Purpose. Yellowing is fairly certain to be due to iron chlorosis if the leaf veins remain green on the otherwise yellow leaf, and the chlorosis appears first on the younger or terminal leaves, spreading later to the lower parts of the plant. Summary The older a tree gets the less lobes the leaves have, so it is safe to say this specimen is relatively young. Family Name (Scientific and Common): Betulaceae (Birch Family), Stem (or Trunk) Diameter: More Than The Diameter of a Coffee-Mug, Characteristics of Mature (Brownish) Bark: Patchy Bark, Length of Leaf (or Leaflet): Less than Length of a Credit Card, Patterns of Main-Veins on Leaf (or Leaflet): Pinnate, Change in Color of Foliage in October: Changes to Yellow, Size of Individual Flower: Between a Quarter and the Length of a Credit Card, Sexuality: Male and Female Flowers on Separate Plants, Fruit Desirable to Birds or Squirrels: No, Louisville Plants That Are Most Easily Confused With This One: Cherry Birch, Unique Morphological Features of Plant: Sheds inner bark / Leaf spots. The bark of mature trees is scaly and dark red-brown to black in color and often resembles the bark of cherry. Although it is not drought tolerant, it still has a high heat tolerance. The buds are small, less than 1/4 inch long with 3 to 4 scales; terminal buds are absent on all but short spur shoots. The older trees have deeper roots and are a better indicator of the soil. Prices and download plans . River Birch is one of the very best and most rapidly growing shade trees, that also has outstanding ornamental bark. Severe attacks of birch leaf miner predispose trees to bronze birch borer infestation. The wood of river birch is used for firewood, pallets, inexpensive furniture, and novelties. ... Pattern. It prefers moist soils, but will grow on sites from wet to very dry. 1/2 inch long petiole. The lacy holes run next to the heavy veins in the leaf, lending it a snowflake pattern, with no leaf identical. The winter twigs are slender, red-brown in color, and covered with white conspicuous lenticels or pores. • Twigs and branches may die back from the crown. But as a landscape tree, it can be planted almost anywhere in the U.S. These different landscapes are usually wet for a portion of the year, but still can be fairly dry during the summer and fall months. Common species of birch include white or paper birch (B. papyrifera), river birch (B. nigra), and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis). Site Requirements: Best planted in full sun, with moist, well-drained soils. Also, this species is becoming very popular among estates, parks, college campuses, and golf courses due to its handsome bark character. Betula is the classical name for Birch. Leaf Margins - Coarsely and doubly-serrate, sharp pointed, rounded at the base, and have 3 to 7 lateral veins. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. Will tolerate a range of soils. Leaf Width - 1 to 2½ inches. On drier sites, common associates include silver maple, willow, cottonwood, green ash, and boxelder. Buds hug the stem and may be hairy. On some sites, especially wet sites, it is often found growing in pure stands. SYMPTOMS • Leaves turn yellow-green or bright yellow but veins remain green. Birch leaf miner is a common insect pest of birch. In most of Iowa, it is the only birch which should be planted for ornamental purposes. This use is more valuable than the wood products. The leaf of the River Birch is 2 to 3.5 inches long with modest yellow fall color. The veins of the leaves run directly to the teeth from the mid-vein of the leaf. Add to Likebox #135196346 - Russia. With the right site, some supplemental care, and some luck, the river birch trees will thrive. … Sign in Sign up for FREE Prices and download plans River birch is best adapted to moist soils and is most likely found in nature on the banks of streams or swampy bottomlands, which are both areas of frequent flooding. Download River birch stock photos. I have several river birch trees planted near each other. River Birch, B. nigra — Leaves: broad, wedged base, smooth margin at base, rest is doubly toothed or may even be slightly lobed, 7-9 pairs of veins. The flowers occur in clusters called catkins. The fungus depends on spores shed from the … Leaf Spots Leaf spots may be caused by a variety of fungi that attack the river birch when heavy or prolonged rains occur in spring or shortly after new growth appears. The principal leaf disease of river birch is anthracnose leaf blight caused by Gloeosporium betularum. Cylindrosporium and Septoria cause small spots with no borders … River birch is intolerant of shade; its small seeds require bare, mineral soil to germinate. River birch is widely planted for its appealing, peeling bark and shiny, diamond-shaped leaves. 2) Leaf Spot of River Birch - also called River Birch Leaf Blight. It is lighter and weaker than yellow or white birch. Leaves: Alternate, simple, and double-toothed with equal leaf bases. Rake up and destroy the fallen leaves. The veins are still green, while the surrounding areas have turned a bright yellow. As its name suggests, the river birch naturally grows along riverbanks. As birch matures, bark becomes thick, fissured, shaggy, and gray-black in color. It can be used or trained as a single stem or as a clump. First you see small brown spots which cover the leaves measles-like. Chlorosis of River Birch, Red Maple, and Others; June 26, 2002: Chlorosis (yellowing) refers to leaves that are light green or yellow--not a healthy, dark green. The river birch is by far the most adaptable birch species for North-South landscapes. The bark of river birch changes with age of the tree. The … Secondary or lateral veins in the leaf often take on a yellow (chlorotic) appearance. Habitat: Found in bottomland areas and along streams in eastern Iowa. 339 Science II Wildlife Habitat Programs and Consultation, Alternate, simple, and double-toothed with equal leaf bases. Width: Varies with species from 35 feet wide to 60 feet wide. The tree begins shedding the foliage in self defense. Leaves are 0.75 to 2.5 inches wide, pointed, sharply acute, broadly cuneate to nearly truncate, glaucous with 7-9 veins … These trees also act as a source of nutrients for multiple species like birds that eat their seeds. The eggs of the witchhazel gall aphid overwinter on witchhazel, then hatch and feed on the flower buds, forming a spiny gall, before migrating to river birch. River birch, also called red birch, black birch, or water birch, is the only southern birch that grows in coastal plains. River Birch (Betula nigra) Height 40-80' Characteristics: The bark on a young birch is shiny pinkish-brown or silvery-gray, separating into papery scales. Newer leaves will have interveinal chlorosis, and in severe cases, will form brown spots. Iron chlorosis is most common on pin oak, sweet gum, and river birch trees as well as rhododendrons and azaleas. 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